STDs IMPACT ON FERTILITY

Sexually transmitted disease is referred to as a condition that spreads from one person to another during vaginal, oral, anal, or close intimate contact. These are also called venereal diseases as these are transmitted through semen, body fluids, needle or breastfeeding. Sexually transmitted diseases cause sexually transmitted infections, which can be associated with bacteria, viruses, or parasites and cause serious conditions in both male and female reproductive organs leading to  fertility issues. Sometimes these infections can be transmitted non-sexually, such as from mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth. Most people infected with STDs will not become infertile if treated appropriately, which can  be done by a fertility specialist. You can consult our IVF specialist in Lajpat Nagar.

Sores or bumps on the genitals or in the oral or rectal area, painful or burning urination, discharge from the penis, unusual or odd-smelling vagina discharge, unsaual vaginal bleeding, pain during sex, sore, swollen lymph nodes, particularly in the groin or  sometimes more widespread, lower abdominal pain, fever, rash over the trunk, hands, or feet are some of the complications that occurs  in STDs and these sign and symptoms can help to detect the STDs.

Having unprotected sex, having sexual contact with multiple partners, having a history of STDs, forced sexual intercourse or sexual activity, misuse of alcohol or use of recreational drugs, injecting drugs,  men taking prescription for drugs to treat erectile dysfunction increase the risk for STDs which can lead to infertily in couples. Test, vaccination, correction knowledge and education about sex, using precaution while sex can help in the prevention.

Sexually transmitted diseases are very common. People who have STD often have no symptoms. It is responsible for damaging the reproductive organs and causing infertility. In females, most of the infertility seems to occur in the woman’s tube that is called the tubal factor and is a major public health concern. 


Many sexually transmitted diseases that are untreated and ascend along the reproductive tract attribute to  tubal factor infertility and are responsible for causing tubal inflammation, damage and scarring. Female infertility may be attributed to a number of factors that may be endocrine, vaginal, cervical, of the uterine, tubal or pelvic-peritoneal factors. An inflammation caused in the epithelial surface of the fallopian tube and subsequent pelvic-peritoneal adhesions that are caused by previous or persistent infection cause  tubal factor infertility. Through cervix bacteria ascending along the mucosal surface to the endometrium and ultimately reaching the fallopian tube leads to acute pelvic inflammatory diseases, which in turn are associated with subsequent tubal factor Infertility. Clinically, many tubal factor inflammations can be diagnosed looking into the upper genital tract infection, which sometimes remains asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic.  

Male infertility may be attributed to abnormal sperm production or function due to undescended testicle, genetic defects, diabetes, or infections caused by STDs such as HIV or mumps, enlarged veins in the testes  can also affect the quality of sperm, production with the delivery of sperm due to sexual problems such as premature ejaculation, genetic dishes, cystic fibrosis, blockage in the testicle, damages or injury to the reproductive organs, overexposure to certain environmental factors such as chemicals, pollution, pesticides, smoking, steroids, heat, radiation chemotherapy or some cancer thewtnebt that can damage the sperm production and sometime it can be severe cause of infertility. 

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and syphilis are those infections caused by bacteria. Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis are the infections caused by parasites. HIV, virus, genetical herpes, human papillomavirus are caused by viruses  and are the most common STIs responsible for infertility.

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae travels through the ureter, reaches the bladder and causes inflammation of the urethra and the cervix, which is in the end part of the uterus. It can travel to the uterus, fallopian tube and ovaries and cause infection to these areas, which is referred to as  pelvic inflammatory diseases. In most of the cases, it blocks the tubes so that eggs can not trace to the uterus. Most of the tube Infertility is supposed to be caused by Chlamydia. 

Herpes simplex virus makes it harder for men’s bodies to produce sperm. Presence of herpes virus in sperm leads to infertility in women too. 

HIV is responsible for causing biological changes which may affect the functioning of reproductive organs and can result in infertility unnoticed and untreated HIV can lead to extensive damage and Infertility. 

Scarring, adhesion bands of scar tissue is found to be formed in the epithelium part of these reproductive organs leading to chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy when a fertilized egg does not  get to the uterus before implantation  pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen, deep pain during secyal Intercourse, heavy and painful periods, fever, and Infertility 

Gentical herpes that is caused by herpes simplex virus forms small painful blisters on the genitals and a burning sensation when urinating can be felt. These blisters can sometimes flare up and can’t be transmitted to the baby through direct contact.

Syphilis is associated with miscarriages and stillbirth in women. 

Mycoplasma genitalium causes vagina discharge, inflammation in the urethra and cervix, pelvic inflammatory diseases in women and in males inflammation of the urethra, painful urination, discharge from the penis which increases the risk of infertility. 

Human papillomavirus causes cancer of vulva or cervix, which can cause infertility 

Male reproductive part is equally affected by STD, it causes infection and subsequent damage to the testicular tubes through which sperms travel, the production of sperm on the testes if untreated may ascend toward the genetical area causing chronic infection in the testes that may lead to sperm motility and viability. Antisperm antibodies are produced to the response of infection which decreases sperm  parameters. 

There are ways to prevent STDs and reduce the risk of infertility by opting for treatment. Explore the infertility treatment in Delhi, where you as well your partner can talk honestly and freely with the doctor for best guide and help.

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